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All About Credit Scores

July 1, 2019

 

It’s difficult to imagine functioning in today’s world without credit. Whether buying a car or purchasing a home, credit has become an integral part of our everyday lives. Having easy access to credit goes hand in hand with having a good credit score, so it’s important to know how to maintain a positive credit score and credit history.

The importance of having a good credit score

Your credit score is based on your past and present credit transactions. Having a good credit score is important because most lenders use credit scores to evaluate the creditworthiness of a potential borrower. Borrowers with good credit are presumed to be more trustworthy and may find it easier to obtain a loan, often at a lower interest rate. Credit scores can even be a deciding factor when you rent an apartment or apply for a new job.

How is your credit score determined? The three major credit reporting agencies (Experian, Equifax, and TransUnion) track your credit history and assign you a corresponding credit score, typically using software developed by Fair Isaac Corporation (FICO).

The most common credit score is your FICO score, a three-digit number that ranges from 300-850. What’s a good FICO score? For the most part, that depends on the lender and your particular situation. However, individuals with scores of 700 or higher are generally eligible for the most favorable terms from lenders, while those with scores below 700 may have to pay more of a premium for credit. Finally, individuals with scores below 620 may have trouble obtaining any credit at all.

Factors that can negatively impact your credit score

A number of factors could negatively affect your credit score, including:

Fixing credit report errors

Because a mistake on your credit report can negatively impact your credit score, it’s important to monitor your credit report from each credit reporting agency on a regular basis and make sure all versions are accurate.

If you find an error on your credit report, your first step should be to contact the credit reporting agency, either online or by mail, to indicate that you are disputing information on your report. The credit reporting agency usually must investigate the dispute within 30 days of receiving it. Once the investigation is complete, the agency must provide you with written results of its investigation. If the credit reporting agency concludes that your credit report does contain errors, the information on your report must be removed or corrected, and you’ll receive an updated version of your credit report for free.

If the investigation does not resolve the issue to your satisfaction, you can add a 100-word consumer statement to your credit file. Even though creditors are not required to take consumer statements into consideration when evaluating your creditworthiness, the statement can at least give you a chance to tell your side of the story.

If you believe that your credit report error is the result of identity theft, you may need to take additional steps to resolve the issue, such as placing a fraud alert or security freeze on your credit report. You can visit the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) website at ftc.gov for more information on the various identity theft protections that might be available to you.

Finally, due to the amount of paperwork and steps involved, fixing a credit report error can often be a time-consuming and emotionally draining process. If at any time you believe that your credit reporting rights are being violated, you can file a complaint with the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) at consumerfinance.gov.

How student loans affect your credit score

If you’ve graduated college within the last few years, chances are you’re paying off student loans. The way in which you handle your student loans during the repayment phase can have a significant impact–positive or negative–on your credit history and credit score.

Your main goal when paying back student loans is to make your payments on time. Being late with even one or two loan payments can negatively affect your credit score. If you are in default on your student loans, don’t ignore them–they aren’t going to go away. If necessary, contact your lender about loan rehabilitation programs; successful completion of such programs can remove default status notations on your credit report. Of course, if you are making your loan payments on time, make sure that any positive repayment history is being correctly reported by all three credit bureaus.

Even if you are paying your student loans in a timely manner, having a large amount of student loan debt can have an impact on another important factor that affects your credit score: your debt-to-income ratio. Having a higher-than-average debt-to-income ratio could hurt your chances of obtaining new credit if a creditor believes your budget is stretched too thin, or if you’re not making progress on paying down the debt you already have. Fortunately, there are steps you can take to help improve your debt-to-income ratio:

IMPORTANT DISCLOSURES
GYL Resnick does not provide tax, or legal advice. The information presented here is not specific to any individual’s personal circumstances. To the extent that this material concerns tax matters, it is not intended or written to be used, and cannot be used, by a taxpayer for the purpose of avoiding penalties that may be imposed by law. Each taxpayer should seek independent advice from a tax professional based on his or her individual circumstances. These materials are provided for general information and educational purposes based upon publicly available information from sources believed to be reliable – we cannot assure the accuracy or completeness of these materials. The information in these materials may change at any time and without notice.